1. JUMP – CUT:
Date: Feb, 7th 2012
Title of editing technique: Jump Cut
Movie or Television Title: I Confess (directed by Alfred Hitchcock, 1953)
Scene: When Ruth (the Minister’s wife) is explaining to the police why ‘Villet’ was blackmailing her. She has a flashback where we see the director using a jump-cut; the first shot shows Ruth and Micheal Logan run away from the pouring rain, and into a little shelter, then we jump to a sunny morning, during which time they wake up in the same positions as before.
Description: A Jump-Cut can be defined as the removal of a portion of a film, resulting in an instantaneous advance in action – a sudden, shocking ellipsis between two shots.
In my opionion this technique was a very clever invention in the editing world of film and television. We can easily continue the story even with the missed information. In a way, I think it takes out the boring blah blah blah in the scene, and allows the viewers, the actors, the directors, as well as the critiques to focus on the important dramatic points. I have also noticed how it has being a trend for many years and as I myself grow the industry as a producer/editor, I plan to make full use of this superb technique.
Here is an example from another source: http://www.mediacollege.com/video/editing/transition/jump-cut.html
2. CHEAT – CUT:
Date: Feb, 13th 2012
Title of editing technique: Cheat Cut
Movie or Television Title: That’s so Raven ( Season 1, Episode 1: Test of Friendship)
Scene: Raven and Chelsea in the hall of the high school, trying to convince Eddie to study for his Spanish test because Raven saw a vision of him failing the test. There is a very unnoticeable cheat cut as Eddie finds out about her vision. In one shot Eddie’s chain is dangling on top of the strap of his bag; we also see the guy behind him hang his bag on his back and then close his locker . Next we cut to a side view. And the third shot goes back to Eddie, however, this time his chain is behind the strap; and the guy behind him follows the same action, with the bag and his locker.
Description: A Cheat Cut is an editing technique that presents continuous time but mismatches the positions of figures.
Unfortunately, I was unable to find a better example of the cheat cut. After further investigation I shall post yet another example. In my opinion the Cheat cut is not so relevant, unless it is used in a scene in which more than one important aspect of the shot must be shown at once. For instance, the example used by classes.yale.edu/film-analysis/htmfiles/editing.htm , in the movie “Meet Me In St.Louis” , where Minelli uses the cheat cut in order to see the expressions & reactions of the family on the dining table, to Esther’s conversation with John on the phone.
Here is an example from another source: http://faculty.washington.edu/cbehler/glossary/cheatcutex1.html
I managed to find a better example:
Date: Feb, 25th 2012
Movie or Television title: Friends (Season 10, Episode 1: The One After Joey and Rachel Kissed)
Scene: In one scene Monica, Chandler and Phoebe are eavesdropping on Ross & Charlie through the thin walls of the hotel. Later, Ross walks in on them, with their ears still to the wall, but soon we see him walk out into what was supposed to be a room, but is now a hall.
3. MATCH – CUT:
Date : Feb, 21st 2012
A). Title of editing technique: Match Cut
Movie or Television title: Music Video of “Next to you”(by Chris Brown and Justin Bieber)
Scene: A sequence of cuts shows Justin Bieber from different perspectives. First we see him standing on the edge through a long-shot, it cuts to a view of his feet, and then to a shot of the ground (as his perspective). Later in the video we see the same scene shot from the ground, as if someone is looking up at him.
Description: A Match Cut is the joining of shots that preserves continuity between the two.
B). Title of editing technique: Match-On-Action Cut
Movie or Television title: Enter the Dragon (1973)
Scene: The people of the village have gathered to watch a fight, and Bruce Lee is winning. At one point Bruce gives his opponent a high kick, which is completed in three cuts. First we see his energy increase with his kick, then cut to his foot on the face of his opponent, and finally cut to the guy flying through the air from the impact of the kick.
Description: A Match on action cut is a type of Match Cut in which the action continues seamlessly from one shot to the next.
This technique is the most efficient in editing so far. We can use this cut to imply change, or to give the viewer a feel of being part of the action. A reaction to a scene can differ, depending on the shot that obtains the most impact. In the second example I gave, I felt the hit on the second cut, when Bruce Lee’s foot reached the other guys face.
4. REVERSE SHOT:
Date: Feb, 21st 2012
Title of Editing Technique: Reverse Shot
Movie or Television Title: No Strings Attached
Scene: While having dinner at a restaurant with Adam’s dad and a younger lady, Adam and Emma are disturbed by the announcement of his engagement to the young lady. The camera moves from Adam’s shoulder, to his dad’s every other sentence. Usually reversing at a point when there is a required reaction from the actors on either side.
Description: It is one of the standard editing patterns, alternating between shots of different characters, usually in a conversation. These shots are typically framed over each character’s shoulder.
Reverse shots are usually done with Close up shots or Medium shots. They are also very important for interactive scenes in film. I have noticed this being used in almost every movie till date.
Here is another example from the movie ‘Light Sleeper’ – http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=QLkUHZ1qips
Date: March, 10th 2012
A). Editing Teachnique: Cross Dissolve
Movie or TV title: Meet Me in St. Louis (1944)
Scene: Esther Smith (played by Judy Garland) has just finished singing “the boy next door”, and the cinematographer uses a cross dissolve into a pot of soup, boiling on the stove for dinner.
Description: A Dissolve is a transitional method, in which shot 2 is superimposed and gradually appears over shot 1. It is often used to indicate the passing of time.
There are different types of ‘dissolves’ and they are very important when making day to day videos. In order to create good connection from one shot to the next, the editor will consider a dissolve before other editing techniques. I myself am a big fun of the, as you can see in my youtube video entitled “In Motion”. This technique has been used and developed for so many years, and will be in demand for more years to come.
Here is an example of this dissolve: http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=VUJSwBWpY_w&feature=plcp&context=C4945271VDvjVQa1PpcFMV08dXQomrx7U1CVJCr47pa2exezywIOo%3D
Date: March 24th, 2012
Editing Technique: A Wipe
Movie or TV title: Rashomon (1950)
Scene: After the Priest tells his version of the story in court, at about the 14th minute, we see a wipe from left to right. In turn revealing Tajomaru (the bandit) and the police man who arrested him.
Description: A transitional device which occurs when one shot moves across the screen from left-to-right or from right-to-left, and appears to wipe away the preceding shot.
I dont really appreciate this device as much as the Dissolve, in that it takes the viewer out of concentration for little bit, and then they have reconnect with where they were in the first place. Especially back in the 1950s where they did this in such an obvious way.
7. FREEZE FRAME :
Date: March 30th, 2012
Editing Technique: Freeze-Frame
Movie or Tv show: Zoey 101 (Episode: “Hot Dean” – Air Date: 10/15/06)
Scene: The new dean just got knocked out by Coco(dorm advisor)’s boyfriend. Zoey and Lola are taking care of him, when Queen calls their attention in order to take a picture. When she takes the picture of them, the editor uses a ‘Freeze-Frame’ for about 3 seconds, before cutting to the next scene.
Description: A Freeze-Frame or Stop-Motion is a technique in which a single frame of a movie or television film gives the effect of a still photograph. It is made by running a series of identical frames or by stopping a reel or videotape at one desired frame. It can aslo be simply refered to as ‘a vivid motionless scene or image’.
This effect was interesting to me because it creates a moment in the character’s purpose for the scene. Being both a film and acting student has taught me the importance of creating a moment, in order to stress a point or to have an ‘awww’ or ‘wow’ shot. These effects are popularly used during action scenes.
8. KEN BURNS EFFECT:
Date: March 31st, 2012
Editing Technique: The Ken Burns Effect
Description: The Ken Burns effect is a type of panning and zooming effect used in video, film, or phototography production from still imagery. The name derives from extensive use of the technique by American documentarian Ken Burns.
Because many of Burns’ films cover historical subjects for which there is little or no archival footage, the filmmaker relies heavily on the use of archival stills. To bring the stills to life, he uses the camera to slow pan and zoom within the frame of the photograph, which continually refocuses the viewer’s attention from one element within the still to another. He also employs gradual fades between photographs to transition from subject to subject. These techniques, now widely used in documentary filmmaking, have been dubbed “The Ken Burns Effect.“
In my opinion the Ken Burns is simply a combination of a Freeze-Frame, a Pan shot, and a Zoom shot. It can be used in many different ways, if it is explored and developed. My Digital Video lecturer just introduced us to this technique, and I shall be able to use it in my next project.